K - O

K [ Back to Top ]

Kilning - The third state of malting where the grain is dried in two or more stages in order to reduce moisture levels from 45% to 5% which stops the germination process and stabilizes the enzymes in the malt.


L [ Back to Top ]

Lactose -

Non-fermentable suger, mildly sweet, used in Stouts and, Porters for residual sweetness.

Lauter Tun -

Consists of a large vessel to hold the mash and, has a false bottom or manifold to allow the wort to drain out and, leave the grain behind

Lautering -

Is the method most brewers ure to separate the sweet wort from the mash. It can be conducted several ways but, it usually consists of three steps, mash out, recirulation and, sparging.

Lees -

The deposits which gather at the bottom of the carboy during wine and beer making (also known as trub).

Legs -

The viscous droplets that form and ease down the sides of the glass when the wine is swirled. Usually more obvious with higher alcohol.

Light -

A term used to describe the body or color of a wine. A light wine is usually easy to drink and not high in alcohol. Muscadet is a light white wine. Beaujolais is an example of a light red wine.

Liquid Malt Extract -

Grains that have been mashed and sparged to extract the fermentable sugars and flavors it is canned and, it has a very thick like tree sap.


See Liquid Malt Extract

Lovibond -

A measurement of darkness or color used for referencing the color of malted grain.


M [ Back to Top ]

Malt -

A grain such as barley, wheat, oats or, rye that has been sprouted and, dried then kilned to bring out the sugars, colors and, flavors

Malt or Malted Grain -

Grain that has been germinated and dried in an artificial environment to allow it to be used for the production of fermented beverages. It readies the grain to be used for mashing.

Malting -

The process that geminates the grain in an artificial environment then dries and/or roasts it. A somewhat lengthy and complex process that requires much attention and equipment to make a consistent quality product. Also see Lovibond.

Malting Stages -

There are 4 stages of malting- Steeping, Couching, Kilning, and Mellowing.See definitions for each specific stage.

Maltose -

Two glucose molecules linked together- not sweet and not fermentable.

Maltotriose -

A three glucose molecules linked together- Variably fermentable.

Maple Sugar or Syrup -

The sugar product made by a maple tree used to flavor beer. There are two grades- A and B. Grade B is less expensive and has more chewy, nutty flavor. Flavor can be enhanced or substituted by the spice fenugreek. See Fenugreek.

Mashing -

The process that uses malted grain and water to change the starchy grains into sugars that are used to make dry and liquid malt sugars and fermented beverages(beer and whiskeys).

Mature - Ready to drink
Mead -

A wine, common in medieval Europe, made by fermenting honey and water. Recently mead has enjoyed new popularity.

Mellowing -

The fourth and final stage of malting where the malt sits allowing some of the harsher compounds that developed during kilning to waft away.

Methode Champenoise -

French term for the method used to make champagne, which is fermented in the bottle. French champagnes and many other sparkling wines are produced using this traditional French technique. The monk Dom Perignon is credited with inventing this method.

Molasses -

A byproduct of cane sugar refining. See Sugar

Mulled Wine -

Red wine that has been mixed with sugar, lemon, and spices, usually including cinnamon, cloves, and nutmeg. Served hot.

Munich Malt -

An amber colored malt with a rich aroma and a gentle toasted taste. Gives beer a reddish color.

Must -

The unfermented juice of grapes extracted by crushing and/or pressing.


N [ Back to Top ]

Nose - The character of a wine as determined by the olfactory sense. Also called aroma, includes bouquet.


O [ Back to Top ]

Oak -

The most popular wood for constructing barrels. Oak imparts flavors and tannin to wines and beers during the barrel aging process, home wine and beer makers can also accomplish this by using oak chips or powder. Prior to the wide spread use of stainless steel for beer barrals, beer was kegged in paraffin lined oak barrels. In most cases, little if any oak flavor was imparted to the beer.

Oxidized -

Describes wine or beer that has been exposed too long to air and taken on a brownish color, losing its freshness and perhaps beginning to smell and taste like Sherry or old apples.