P - T

P [ Back to Top ]

Palm Sugar - See Jaggery
Pectic Enzyme -

Pectic enzyme increases juice yields from fruits by breaking down cellular structure. Also acts as a clarifier, and is used to clear hazes caused by residual pectins. Add at the beginning of fermentation. Use: Add 1/4 teaspoon per 6 US gallons of wine or beer with fruit.

PH -

A chemical measurement of acidity or alkalinity, the higher the pH the weaker the acid. Used by some wineries as a measurement of ripeness in relation to acidity. Low pH wines taste tart and crisp, higher pH wines are more susceptible to bacterial growth. A range of 3.0 to 3.4 is desirable for white wines, while 3.3 to 3.6 is best for reds.

Pilsener Malt -

A pale straw colored, two row barley that has a high diastatic power that allows mashing up to 40% grain adjuncts. The base for most pale lagers.

Pitch -

The act of adding the yeast to the wort to start the fermentation stage

Plastic Paddle -

Like its stirring cousin (see description of plastic spoon below), the plastic paddle is a good way to mix ingredients in the fermentation bucket. Made of food-grade plastic. Flat bottomed.

Plastic Spoon -

It ain't high tech, but the spoon is still one of the best methods for mixing ingredients! It's made of food-grade plastic, which means it won't stain and cleans easily.

Potassium Metabisulfite -

otassium metabisulfite is added to wine to inhibit bacteria and yeast growth, as well as slow down oxidation. Commonly used in tablet form known as Campden tablet. It may leave an unpleasant aftertaste in wine if the dose is too high. This chemical is also used in a water solution as an antiseptic rinse to sanitize equipment. It is identical to, but better than, Sodium Metabisulfite, because it does not add sodium to one's diet. CAUTION: Some people, particularly asthmatics, can have a severe allergic reaction to this substance. Usage: For wine: 1/8 teaspoon (1 gram) of powder per gallon of wine provides 150 ppm free SO2. A little bit goes a long way, so be careful! Always test the free S02 content of your wine (using Titrets and Titret holder) to determine the proper amount to add. Generally speaking, the target free SO2 for red wines is 20-30 ppm and 25-40 ppm for white wines. The exact target depends upon the pH of the wine. For sanitizing solution: Dissolve 1 to 2 oz. (2 to 4 tablespoons) Potassium Metabisulfite powder in one gallon of water.

Potassium Sorbate -

Potassium sorbate is used to slow down yeast growth and inhibit fermentation, thus "stabilizing" your wine prior to bottling. Usage: Add 1/4 teaspoon per gallon of wine. Use one crushed Campden tablet per gallon of wine in concert with potassium sorbate, because sorbate tends to work better in the presence of sulfites. Be sure to stir well, and let the dead yeast cells settle before final racking prior to bottling.

Preboil Tea -

The process of soaking the crushed grain in the brew pot up to 170 degrees prior to the boil


Q [ Back to Top ]

R [ Back to Top ]

Racking -

The practice of moving wine by hose from one container to another, leaving sediment behind. For aeration or clarification.

Reinheistsgebot -

The German purity law of 1516 says that beer should only be made from barley, hops, water and yeast. A law that was enacted to make sure beer was made from barley and not with grains that should be used for making bread(mainly wheat and rye).

Residual Sugar -

Unfermented sugar in a finished beer or wine.


Recirculating infusion mash system. Usually a system that has a pump and heater to recirculate the mash water and keep it at a constant temperature.

Rock Candy -

Made from suger it is great to help make a higher alcohol content and, in the boil it has a higher burn resistent in the pot.


S [ Back to Top ]

Sodium Benzoate -

This is another chemical used to stabilize wines (slow down yeast growth and inhibit fermentation), generally preferred by makers of fruit (non-grape) wines.

Sparge or Sparging -

The act of extracting fermentable sugars from grain after the mash process.

Sparkalloid -

Sparkalloid is used as a fining agent. Usage: Cold method1/2 teaspoon per gallon of wine. Mix required amount of powder with a small amount of cold water. Mix well until solution is smooth and creamy. Add mixture to finished wine and stir. Let wine settle for a week or more, then rack. Hot method: Follow instructions on package. Add to wine hot.

Spices -

An aromatic vegetable substance such as cloves or cinnamon used to season food or beer.

Starter - See Yeast Starter
Steeping -

The first stage of malting where the grain is soaked in water at 60 degrees for 60-80 hours in order to start the germination process of the seeds.

Straining Bags -

Adding flavors to wine is great.... until you have to fetch the oak chips, berries, etc. from the wine. By using these straining bags, you can eliminate the frustration and time spent gathering up the remnants of your added ingredients. They are used much like a tea bag.

Sucrose -

Cane and beet sugar are both sucrose. See sugar.

Sugar -

In brewing it is used to change to alcohol, to add taste and, also to make co2 in the bottleing of the beer.


T [ Back to Top ]

Tannin -

Substances in must that give wine a tart taste. Occurs naturally in stems and skins of grapes.

Tartaric Acid -

The principal acid in wine.

Tartrates -

Harmless crystals of potassium bitartrate that may form in cask or bottle (often on the cork) from the tartaric acid naturally present in wine. This most often happens when a white wine is left in a cold place for an extended period of time. Cold stabilization reduces the chances of this happening.

Terroir -

French word for earth or soil, used in the special sense of "place," which includes localized climate, soil type, drainage, wind direction, humidity and all the other attributes which combine to make one location different from another.

Time -

That is the thing that you forget about when you are home brewing or standing around with your bro's drinking your home brew

Titration -

The process, operation, or method of determining the concentration of a substance in solution by adding to it a standard reagent of known concentration in carefully measured amounts until a reaction of definite and known proportion is completed, as shown by a color change or by electrical measurement, and then calculating the unknown concentration. See Acid Test KIT

Trub - See Lees
Tubing Clamp -

Use one of these clamps to control or shut off the flow of wine as it goes through the vinyl tubing. It's a great help, especially for a one-person winemaking operation.